Thursday, September 3, 2020

Book ReviewGentlehands essays

Book ReviewGentlehands expositions The story Gentlehands happens in the late 1970s. This story for the most part spins around one of the primary characters named Buddy, who is a center classed youngster that has is having a relationship with and high society, more seasoned young lady, named Skye. Buddys odds of dazzling Skye all alone are pretty much nothing so he chooses to acquaint her with his granddad, Mr. Trenker. Mate has not seen his granddad since he was only a little kid as a result of questions between Buddys guardians and Mr.Trenker, so he was not exactly sure what's in store from him. Amigo and Skye both come to understand the Mr. Trenker is exceptionally taught in numerous themes and furthermore very respectful. During this equivalent time Mr. De Lucca, a journalist for some, papers, is living with Skye at the ideal opportunity for obscure reasons. The main explanation he is remaining here is on the grounds that he is attempting to compose an anecdote about someone who used to be a SS official in WWII wit h the epithet Gentlehands. Toward the finish of the story grandpa Trenker is the one that is accepted to be Gentlehands. At the point when Grandpa Trenker knew about these allegations he fled to live with a companion of his. In the story Gentlehands there were a couple of significant characters, including Skye, Buddy, and Grandpa Trenker. Amigo is introduced ass a youngster who had not many encounters throughout everyday life and he indicated it ordinarily all through the book. A case of Buddy having just not many encounters in life is on page 80, passage 7 when pal was setting out a glass of wine. It said I put my hand around the jug and started pouring, and he stated, Wait a moment, Buddy. What? Continuously snatch the container of wine by the neck, he stated, and never fill the glass to the top. I imagine this is a genuine model since it shows how amigo had not very many encounters in life by not realizing how to pour wine. I additionally felt that he was very kind hearted and he likewise sticks to what he has faith in, even th... <!

Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Fromms Humanistic Psychoanalysis

Fromms Humanistic Psychoanalysis As portrayed by Fromm, individuals experience the ill effects of essential tension because of human issues. These are emotions, for example, depression, seclusion, and vagrancy that are realized by human partition from their regular world. This triggers a component planned for decreasing the awkward emotions. Jeff and Ann live in Cleveland, which is far away from their old neighborhood and family.Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Fromm’s Humanistic Psychoanalysis explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More They endeavor hard to rejoin with their family by visiting them during Christmas and New Year special seasons. This feeling of solidarity is credited to the human requirement for rootedness and relatedness. Rootedness alludes to the urge that persuades people to rediscover themselves and appreciate living on the planet again after partition for quite a while. For relatedness, individuals seek to join with others either through marriage or shapin g cozy connections. This depends on three measurements: accommodation, force, and love. By submitting to each other, a gathering, or an organization, one gets joined with the normal world. Comparative with achieving power, individuals become progressively subject to each other and less autonomous. Finally, love makes a unification between people yet at the same time watches the veracity of partition among people (McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002). As to greatness needs, Fromm portrayed it as the inclination for individuals to conquer inactive and the coincidental presence by making or crushing life. This is activated by people who are thrown into the common world without their endorsement. In this manner, they rise above nature either by making or obliterating it for different reasons. Undoubtedly, hesitance is viewed as an alternate item through and through. Individuals are distinguished by the jobs they play in the general public. The feeling of personality in the vast majority is attached to their connection to other people or organizations like religion, occupation, social gatherings, and others. Jeff and Ann recognize themselves with their occupations. Their feeling of personality depends on their one of a kind abilities, which that advantage their establishment and causes them to feel certain with their professions. With respect to the edge of direction, Jeff and Ann see the normal world as a spot that requires greater turn of events. This is credited to the way that they urge their youngsters to leave the world a superior spot than they discovered it. Based on character direction, Fromm would group Jeff and Ann as having a place with the â€Å"productive orientation†. For this situation, they are focused on upgrading their development and improvement, just as those of others. This is guided by their difficult work, love, and great thinking. Fromm’s humanistic mental hypothesis is essentially identified with other mental speculations. Ini tially, it is firmly identified with social mental hypothesis. This hypothesis expresses that conduct is gained by molding. Moreover, molding is constrained by the quick environmental factors. Individuals are molded to grasp the practices of their regular existence where they live or were raised. Jeff and Ann experienced troubles in changing in accordance with another condition far away from their home and family.Advertising Looking for article on brain science? How about we check whether we can support you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Loneliness, segregation, and vagrancy among different practices created because of being isolated from their regular world. Concerning Andrea’s case, she discovers difficulties to bond with her family, and this was created since she was little. This is additionally exacerbated by remaining far away from home. Fromm’s hypothesis is identified with intellectual brain research hypothesis. Individuals are overwhelmingly invo lved by their past encounters in their regular world. In encountering new conditions and data, individuals ought to alter, include, or change their past experience. This is constrained by their psychological and character direction that causes them acclimatize and suit the new condition. For example, a childs past introduction to little pooches would will in general shape the child’s attitude that mutts are little. On the off chance that the kid experiences a major canine, he would retain this new data and alter the past data to incorporate this new one. This progress would include osmosis and convenience. Absorption is engrossing new encounters into the already existing one while settlement is adjusting or changing the past existing into the light of the new condition. Jeff and Ann need to acclimatize and suit living in another condition that is a long way from the past condition. From Andrea’s viewpoint, she fears visiting her residual family because of the past expe rience that she guarantees keeps on enduring. Besides, Maslow’s and Roger’s humanistic brain research speculations identify with that of Fromm. These hypotheses are included human needs that control human presence. As indicated by Fromm’s hypothesis, human needs incorporate rootedness, relatedness, greatness, and personality. Propositions relate with those of Maslow’s hypothesis particularly the social needs. They focus more on connections, feeling of having a place, love, and fondness in the social foundations generally families. Jeff and Ann miss being with their family and they use this open door once it emerges during the special seasons. In conclusion, Fromm’s hypothesis likewise identifies with the character brain research hypothesis. This hypothesis focuses on the personal conduct standards and mental states or decisions, which makes one to stand apart from the rest. As indicated by Fromm’s hypothesis, individuals ought to depict thei r uniqueness to characterize their feeling of personality or character. Jeff and Ann build up their personality from their remarkable gifts in their occupations (Ashcraft, 2012).Advertising We will compose a custom article test on Fromm’s Humanistic Psychoanalysis explicitly for you for just $16.05 $11/page Learn More References Ashcraft, D. M. (2012). Character hypotheses exercise manual. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. (2002). Psychodynamic Theories Fromm: Humanistic Psychoanalysis. Recovered from:

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Chernobyl Informative Speech

Allurement: There are right now 442 dynamic atomic force reactors overall as indicated by the Nuclear Energy Institute. Of the entirety of the reactors around the world, 14 have been delegated mishaps where people in general has been presented to radiation. The most annihilating of these occurrences was the center emergency of reactor 4 at Chernobyl, otherwise called the Chernobyl calamity. Presentation: Today I am going to reveal to you 3 things about Chernobyl.First, I am going to mention to you what Chernobyl was.Second, I will disclose to you Why it occurred lastly, I will mention to you what the impacts were and why it’s applicable today.Body 1 â€Å"What was Chernobyl†? :April 26, 1986 in the early morning hours, a blast shook a flourishing city close to the core of Ukraine.Within days 150 close by towns had been evacuated.This blast would turn into the starting to the most noticeably awful atomic calamity in history.Chernobyl’s power reactors were realisti c reactors, not normally utilized anyplace outside of the Soviet Union.In certain conditions, the graphite reactors could accelerate the atomic response. This was an imperfect Russian Design that at last prompted the disaster.Chernobyl was delegated a classification 7 atomic occasion, the most extreme arrangement as per the Nuclear Event Scale.Comparatively Three Mile Island was just named a class 5.Body 2 â€Å"Why did it occur? †:Next I am going to reveal to you why it happened.The calamity happened because of an analysis which was being controlled by the reactor engineers.The reason for the examination was to decide if power could be drawn from a turbine and diverted to the water siphons. High electrical interest during the day time implied they couldn't run the trial until 11pm.The designers developed fretful, lessening the pace of atomic response too rapidly.Reducing the rate this immediately caused a fast development of radiation poisons.To check this development, the c ontrol bars were pulled back. This implied they were not, at this point ready to control the pace of reaction.These 2 basic blunders (pulling back the bars and easing back the response too quickly) made the specialists unequipped for expanding the force inside the reactor. This was a security safety measure that the architects overrode.Normally, in a circumstance where the reactor becomes temperamental two safeguard measures were in place.â In the first place, the intensity of the reactor could be expanded to re-balance out the atomic response And Second, the architects could hold up 24 hours to permit the response synthetic compounds to dissipateThe Engineers be that as it may, had just crippled the first safeguard be expelling the control rods.The designs additionally kept on killing option security insurances including the crisis reactor cooling framework. This framework was intended to help stop the response if a lot of warmth was generated.The crisis vitality gracefully was likewise closed down, which means there was no extra vitality to run the plant.The try proceeded and the turbine generators were additionally shutdown.The electrical flexibly to the reactors water siphons was diminished because of the examination, decreasing the measure of cooling water going through the reactor.Because of this, water inside the reactor center started to boil.This was irksome, since the cool water was utilized to lessen the warm th of the response. As the pace of atomic response kept on quickening, expansion graphite tipped control bars were discharged by the engineers.Under typical conditions, the control poles were intended to slow the pace of reaction.However, with the response previously quickening wild, the addition of the graphite bars additionally expanded the reaction.After crippling or debilitating all potential safeguard strategies, the designers had come up short on prospects and had lost unlimited oversight of the atomic reactor.Enough pressure had developed inside the reactor to cause a blast, prompting the breakdown of reactor 4. Following the blast, the specialists and reactor laborers endeavored to conceal the episode from authorities.This implied that clearing exertion couldn't completely start for 36 hours after the explosion.Because the occurrence was not promptly detailed and people in general was never made completely mindful, ranch produce, dairy and the air was sullied with very eleva ted levels of radiation and incredibly significant levels of radiation and in this way devoured by the occupants in districts encompassing Chernobyl.Within hours of the blast, inhabitants of the close by city of Prypiat started to fall ill.Body 3: How is it pertinent to us? At long last, I’m going to mention to you what the impacts were and why Chernobyl is as yet applicable today.Hundreds of thousands of individuals were influenced by the accident150 towns and towns were deserted dislodging a huge number of individuals from their homes.As a consequence of the across the board arrival of radiation researchers gauge t caps 100,000 miles square miles encompassing Chernobyl had been fundamentally contaminated.Significant levels of radiation from Chernobyl were recorded at the Forsmark Nuclear force plant around 600 miles from Chernobyl.Over 600,000 laborers were engaged with the cleanup of Chernobyl. A considerable lot of these laborers got noteworthy degrees of radiation.The gl obal nuclear vitality organization noted in excess of 1800 archived instances of thyroid malignant growth in kids 14 and under promptly following the debacle, a lot higher than normal.Most of these were distinguished early and effectively treated.The fiasco uncovered the serious impacts of radiation harming on the body as indicated by the universal Nuclear security gathering: â€Å"Krypton 85 influences the whole body and can improve the probability of creating disease, for example, leukemia inside two years of introduction. Cesium 137 can assault the whole body, focusing on the liver, spleen and the muscles. Barium 140, accumulates during the bones and can cause tumors as late as thirty years after presentation. Iodine 131 assembles in the thyroid. It can trigger malignancy in the thyroid decades following exposure†.The occasion carried attention to the risks of radiation from atomic reactors as well as from regular events, for example, getting a X-Ray at the hospital.Conclu sion:Nuclear reactors are utilized more today than any time in recent memory. The closest one is in Chicago, IL. The calamity of Chernobyl made individuals increasingly mindful of the dangers.More wellbeing measures were established on account of Chernobyl. These wellbeing measures implied that regulation and calamity alleviation was a lot quicker and increasingly compelling during the 2010 Fukushima atomic debacle in Japan. All in all I have mentioned to you what Chernobyl is, the reason it occurred, what the impacts and why it is as yet pertinent to us today.ReferencesChernobyl | Nuclear Reaction | FRONTLINE | PBS. (n. d. ). PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www. pbs. organization/wgbh/pages/cutting edge/appears/response/readings/chernobyl. tmlChernobyl: Cause and Effect. (n. d. ). RichEast. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www. richeast. organization/htwm/chernobyl/chernobyl. html International Nuclear Events Scale (INES). (2 012, September 25).Nuclear Safety and Security. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www-ns. iaea. organization/tech-zones/crisis/ines. asp Nuclear Energy Institute †U. S. Atomic Power Plants. (n. d. ).Atomic Energy Institute †Clean-Air Energy. Retrieved October 23, 2012, from http://www. nei. organization/resourcesandstats/nuclear_statistics/usnuclearpowerplants/

Is information society the consequence of a revolutionary change from Essay

Is data society the outcome of a progressive change from past social relations or has there quite recently been continuous development - Essay Example A data society would be useless in the event that it is following a set plan. This could be a politically sponsored plan or could get its inspiration from various zones, the vast majority of which stay inside the state itself. The general public has an exceptionally appropriate task to carry out undoubtedly. On the off chance that the general public is naã ¯ve and doesn't really have a clue what this data would do towards their own lives, it is protected to express that such a data society is serving the reason for definitely nobody. Proliferation of political idea inside a data society would be proportionate to meeting a target or an objective which is expected and thus persuaded in such a way, that it changes the view of the individuals. Following a plan inside a data society is in this manner loaded up with various attitudes, all of which have a significant job at understanding the announcement of getting a social change, one that is both of a transient sort or intended to bring a since quite a while ago run movement. At that point there is the significant conversation of political tilts getting moved through the consolidation of news sources and under such aegis, a data society would just work best towards giving that upper hand that has been conceived.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Writing a Descriptive Essay

Writing a Descriptive EssayWhen you're writing a descriptive essay, you should not focus only on the story you want to tell. Describing your information is an important part of your essay, but you also need to be sure that you are presenting yourself and your experiences in a way that readers will find appealing. Here are some tips to help you achieve this goal.Writing a story, especially when the focus is a personal experience, can be an easy task. That doesn't mean it should be without challenge. Describing an event you've had can be difficult. But if you want your reader to find interest in your writing, the most important part of your essay is to tell them something about the event. Whether it's the first time you ever kissed someone or the first time you saw a strange car, there should be a certain amount of openness and candor when describing the specific event.If you have trouble writing a specific description of the event, then you can always enlist the help of an experienced professional. They'll be able to give you ideas on how to describe your experiences. Another thing you can do is to read up on the topic. Find out what other people have written about the events or questions you're going to ask in your writing.When you're writing a descriptive essay, you should be careful not to minimize the value of other people's experiences. You may be certain that you experienced a particular event personally, but there's no reason that other people shouldn't also be able to see a connection between your description and what they've experienced. You should include descriptions of other types of experiences as well. This is important because people generally use anecdotes to help them express their feelings. Using descriptions, you can show how others use anecdotes in describing their own experiences.Your essay should be fairly short. Don't try to write a story about a situation you never experienced. Focus on an experience that you've had or read about. Don't j ust tell how things are, but also show how things can be. Using language that has a personal touch is important in this case.Your essay should make sense as a whole. Don't throw all of your experiences into one paragraph. Take the time to explain the parts that are relevant to your topic and then move on to the parts that are not so important.Your essay should be easy to understand. Readers can't take too much time analyzing your text. Make your descriptions easy to understand and organize. You don't want your readers trying to figure out what you're trying to say.Follow these steps and you'll learn a lot about writing a descriptive essay and developing skills to make it easier for you. You will also have a well-written, informative essay that has substance. You'll be on your way to writing another great essay. The more research you do and the more practice you get, the better you'll be at this style of writing.

Friday, August 14, 2020

Countering Terrorismexamining The Tactics Of Rendition And

Countering Terrorismexamining The Tactics Of Rendition And Countering Terrorism:examining The Tactics Of Rendition And Extraordinary Rendition Of The Us â€" Assignment Example > Countering Terrorism: Examining the Tactics of Rendition and Extraordinary Rendition of the USAbstract: This essay aims to discuss the tactics of rendition, especially the extraordinary rendition of United States, in countering and combating terrorism. It analyses the pressing need of United States and other countries in dealing effectively with the growing threats and attacks of terrorism, both global and regional. It also examines the use of rendition by United States in trying to combating terrorism in conjunction with other foreign countries. In the course of such an analysis, the essay takes into account the issues against extraordinary rendition, and discusses on the debates raised today about the ethicality and justification of the use of extraordinary rendition by US. The essay also reviews and records the response of United States to the several debates against its methods used in the war against terrorism. Introduction: Bombings, attacks, threats, and violence carried on by terrorists have become a commonplace activity in our world of today. Although statistics might indicate that there has been a reduction in the terrorist incidents, there is still a pressing need for countries to combat international as well as domestic terrorism and wage a war against global terrorism. Terrorism has been defined by Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d) as ‘the term terrorism means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against non-combatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience… the term “terrorist group” means any group practising, or that has significant subgroups that practice, international terrorism…’ (National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, 1998). In order to deal effectively with terrorism and terrorists, who having mobility often frequent countries and cause havoc, different countries have developed techniques. The visitations of t errorists and their destruction in United States have further fuelled the fire in the country against terrorism. Research indicates that terrorism and terrorist groups have always been the focus of the departments of US, which include ‘executive branch agencies (for example, the State Department, CIA, and FBI) as well as Congressional bodies â€" including the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the Congressional Research Service’ (The National Security Archive, 2001). ‘The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and the abortive attack (possibly aimed at the White House or Camp David) that resulted in the crash of a jetliner in Pennsylvania has resulted in a new and extraordinary emphasis by the Bush administration on combating terrorism’ (The National Security Archive, 2001). Reports state that ‘during the last ten days key administration officials, particularly President Bush, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, and Secr etary of State Colin Powell, have repeatedly emphasized that their long-term objective is the destruction of terrorism â€" a goal to be achieved by the death or apprehension of terrorists, the destruction of their infrastructure and support base, and retaliation against states that aid or harbor terrorists’ (The National Security Archive, 2001). To investigate the roots of terrorism, United States has been implementing a practice known as ‘extraordinary rendition’. Rendition and Extraordinary Rendition: What They Mean:

Sunday, June 21, 2020

The Connection between Art and History for Julian Barnes - Literature Essay Samples

The connection between history and art is similar to the law of Causality in physics, otherwise known as the â€Å"cause and effect† law. As history progressed through multiple ages, fashions, and mentalities, so did artistic styles and tendencies. Art is important to the historic field because the objects created by man show how different were the points of view of the people living back then compared to our modernized minds. This connection between art and history, which is occasionally marked by irony and incongruity, is addressed in Julian Barnes’s A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters. Salman Rushdie describes Julian Barnes’s A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters as a â€Å"fiction about what history might be,† a â€Å"brilliant, elaborate doodle around the margins of what we know we think about what we think we know.† It is a novel composed of short stories covering the history of the world, changing the narrative mode in each chapter, thus creating in the reader’s mind different kinds of stories: a drama, a documentary, or a personal narrative. For instance, we experience the point of view of a woodworm who infiltrated Noah’s Ark, only to have the perspective changed and read a complete analysis of The Raft of Medusa, the painting by Theodore Gericault. As Steven Connor states in The English Novel in History, â€Å"One particularly marked feature of postwar fiction, (†¦) which establishes an important link between history and novelistic narrative is the practice of rewriting earlier works of fiction. Such novels are a particular effect of a more generalised sense of the eternal return that seems to characterise postwar fiction.† Barnes is atomizing the history of the world, questioning the grand narratives. He is creating micro-histories that nobody thought were plausible in order to challenge the reader to also question, divide and analyze the history of the world as seen from different perspectives, which to some may seem untruthful, unreliable, or simply absurd. As he states in Parenthesis, the only chapter that does not have a numeral in front of it: â€Å"We make up a story to cover the facts we don’t know or cannot accept; we keep a few true facts and spin a new story round them. Our panic and our pain are only eased by soothing fabulation; we call it history.† He is retelling the history of the world in only 10  ½ chapters, and thus he is â€Å"reworking† it or simply transforming it through â€Å"translation, adaptation, displacement, imitation, forgery, plag iarism, parody, pastiche,† as Steven Connor describes it. The analysis of the Medusa (Chapter 5: Shipwreck) is the most relevant chapter in the book in terms of illustrating the connection between art and history. The chapter itself is an analysis of Gericault’s painting, The Raft of Medusa. The first half of the chapter explains the historical events of the shipwreck and the efforts the crew made in order to remain alive, describing all the grotesque and inhumane methods they were forced to utilize (dehydration, starvation and even cannibalism). In the second half, the narrator is examines the painting and describes why Gericault felt the need to â€Å"soften† the harsh reality in order to make the history more reasonable, less grotesque and in order to respect the guidelines of aestheticism imposed by the Romantic movement in the French painting during that time: â€Å"Truth to life, at the start, to be sure; yet once the process gets under way, truth to art is the greater allegiance. The incident never took place as depict ed; the numbers are inaccurate; the cannibalism is reduced to literary reference†¦The raft has been cleaned up as if for†¦a queasy-stomached monarch: the strips of human flesh have been housewifed away, and everyone’s hair is as sleek as a painter’s new-bought brush.† This quotation explains precisely how â€Å"Catastrophe has become art†: the author actively helps the reader to observe how a piece of art can be used in order to manipulate people and history. The first chapter, The Stowaway, is however the axis of the whole book, every chapter being related in one way or another to the Ark or Noah, the novel itself being â€Å"a post-modern, post-Christian series of variations on the theme of Noahs Ark.† The chapter is written from the perspective of a woodworm, who describes Noah as a drunken, ordinary man, â€Å"who thinks of his menagerie as a floating cafeteria and eats many species into extinction†. He never took into account that the feathers of plovers turn white during winter and decided to bring it to extinction for the sake of the other animals. He killed the unicorns who were â€Å"strong, honest, fearless, impeccably groomed and a mariner who never knew a moment’s queasiness† and consumed them (which upset the whole animal kingdom), despite the fact that the unicorn saved Ham’s wife from falling into the sea. The woodworm blames God for Noah’s habit because he’s an â€Å"oppres sive role model†. Then he continues the verbal irony when talking about Noah’s caretaking methods: â€Å"As soon as he saw the plovers turning white, he decided that they were sickening, and in tender consideration for the rest of the ship’s health he had them boiled with a little seaweed on the side†. The chapter might provoke some Christians because of Barnes’s way of mocking one of the most important events written in the Bible. On this aspect I agree with Rushdie’s comment: â€Å"The playful irreverence of this chapter would make instructive and no doubt shocking reading for some of todays hardline religionists†(Salman Rushdie, 238), finding myself in the position of questioning the Bible even more than I already do. What if Noah really was a drunk who is responsible for the extinction of so many mythological creatures? We might never find out the truth. What Barnes’s is trying to show us, using the motif of Noah’s he ro status and the Ark, is that history is highly influenced by art and guidelines imposed by people, movements. . Moreover, we forget that history is written by the victor which, of course, writes it in such way that his part is not only more glorious than it should be, but he is also omitting details (as in the 5th chapter), making us refuse other perspectives which might be indeed truthful and useful. The woodworm perspective is still present in the third chapter, The Wars of Religion, in which the insects, referred to as the bestioles (Latin term for bug or insect), are charged with â€Å"felonious intervention† for eating the Bishop’s throne and the church of Saint-Michel until it fell down. â€Å"A church, being a ship of souls, is also a sort of ark.†(Salman Rushdie, p. 241). The habitants request the excommunication of the bestioles responsible for the â€Å"devilish work†. Plaidoyer des habitans, the prosecution, next described the inhabitant’s victimization as â€Å"humble faith† and â€Å"unimpeachable honesty†, explaining the absence of the bestioles: â€Å"too trepid of this court to let anything but the clear fountain of truth flow from their mouths†. The statements used in these quotations satirize the prosecution. However, the court accuses the woodworms because they naturally eat wood by over exaggerating the in cident in which the Besanson’s bishop, Huge, fell through the throne: â€Å"Oh malevolent day! Oh malevolent invaders! And how the Bishop fell †¦ being hurled against his will into a state of imbecility†, thus parodying the Bishop’s fall. When describing the examination of the â€Å"crime scene†, the plaidoyer says they discovered an â€Å"unnatural infestation† in one of the legs of the chair and that they add that the criminals had â€Å"secretly and darkly gone about their devlish work, [and] so devoured the leg that the Bishop did fall †¦ from the heavens of light into the darkness of imbecility†. This might be an inappropriate overstatement because woodworms infest do wood naturally. In the end, â€Å"the villager’s successful prosecution of the woodworms who end up being excommunicated †¦ is ironically undercut by the conclusion in which the closing words †¦ have been eaten by the woodworm† (Finney 63) . Barnes satirizes documented history through the whole chapter, parodies a real event in history and tells an alternative story. The half chapter of the total of 10  ½ is represented by Parenthesis, in which Barnes talks directly to the reader about his view of love â€Å"like El Greco staring out of his masterpiece The Burial of Count Orgaz†(Salman Rushdie, p. 239). Salman also states that this half chapter â€Å"saves the day† because Barnes’s view of history is â€Å"what let’s this book down† and â€Å"it’s just too thin to support the whole fabric.† In Barnes’ vision, love is a kind of ark on which two people might just be saved and Rushdie interprets this idea as â€Å"the opposite of history is love†, which to some might feel â€Å"like a lifebelt, like a raft†. Barnes analyzes the â€Å"I love you† sentence in different languages(English, German, French, Russian and finally Italian) and compares the different structure of each of them. He imagines a â€Å"phonic conspiracy between the world’s languages. They make a c onference decision that the phrase must always sound like something to be earned, to be striven for, to be worthy of.† In German it is a â€Å"late-night, cigarette-voiced whisper, with that happy rhyme of subject and object†, in French â€Å"a different procedure, with the subject and object being got out of the way first, so that the long vowel of adoration can be savoured to the full,† in Russian there is an â€Å"implication of difficulty, obstacles to be overcome,† and in Italian it: â€Å"sounds perhaps a bit too much like an apà ©ritif, but is full of structural conviction with subject and verb, the doer and the deed, enclosed in the same word.† He also describes why love does not mean that the couple is happy, not necessarily because they do not love each other enough, but because happiness is something that is subjective and can only be found alone and not together with love, but â€Å"Perhaps love is essential because it’s unneces sary.† Rushdie adds, with regret, that â€Å"even here one wishes that Barnes the essayist had stepped aside for Barnes the full-blooded novelist; instead of a disquisition on love, we could have been given the thing itself. Dont talk of love, as Eliza Doolittle sang, show me.â€Å" The History of the World in 10  ½ Chapters is in all these ways a postmodernist carousel of the unexpected, a complex novel which speaks for those with no voice – the losers of history. Barnes employs irony and uses a wide array of narrative voices in order to form a single parody of the history restrained to only 10  ½ chapters. Using this unusual technique to write his novel, Barnes provides a criticism for the authority of history. The connection between art and history is best described by the Causality law: history being the action and art the reaction. Artists were telling history as seen by those they were working for, such as kings and the Church. In a way, because they had to paint or sculpt only one version of events, mostly the victors’, they were censoring themselves. Moreover, they had to abide certain rules of style and morality. This is reflected in the fifth chapter, in which Gericault had to eliminate the grotesque elements of his painting. Therefor e, art was an expression of history told from a singular, subjective perspective. Without a way of cross-examining the accuracy of events as seen from other points of view, because often the truth lies somewhere in the middle, history has been told from the perspective of some people. Sovereigns used to commission paintings and sculptures in order to immortalize their accomplishments, therefore making artists accomplices to their truth (many examples come from the Antiquity to Napoleon). Barnes’s novel urges the reader to question the authenticity and the authority of history in general, calling for a lecture that questions the veracity of the information. Works cited: Barnes, Julian. A History of the World in 10 1/2 Chapters Finney, Brian. A Worms Eye View of History: Julian Barness A History of the World in 10 1/2 Chapters. Papers on Language Literature 39.1 (2003): 49 70. Literature Resource Center. Web. 14 2012. Rushdie, Salman. Imaginary Homelands Connor, Steve. â€Å"The English Novel In History 1950-1995 Routledge